Floodfill recolors any pixel that matches the color of the target pixel and is a neighbor, whereas filltoborder recolors any neighbor pixel that is not the border color. Finally, reset recolors all pixels. Use matte to the change the pixel matte value to transparent. Follow the pixel coordinate with a method see the color primitive for a description of methods.
The point method changes the matte value of the target pixel. The replace method changes the matte value of any pixel that matches the color of the target pixel.
Floodfill changes the matte value of any pixel that matches the color of the target pixel and is a neighbor, whereas filltoborder changes the matte value of any neighbor pixel that is not the border color -bordercolor.
Finally reset changes the matte value of all pixels. You can set the primitive color, font, and font bounding box color with -fill , -font , and -box respectively. Options are processed in command line order so be sure to use these options before the -draw option. Drawing primitives conform to the Magick Vector Graphics format. Note, drawing requires an alpha channel. If none is available, an all opaque alpha channel is implicitedly created.
Specify the count and the image to duplicate by its index in the sequence. Encipher pixels for later deciphering by -decipher. Specify endianness MSB or LSB of the image. To perform histogram equalization on all channels in concert, transform the image into some other color space, such as HSL, OHTA, YIQ or YUV, then equalize the appropriate intensity-like channel, then convert back to RGB.
For example using HSL, we have For YIQ, YUV and OHTA use the red channel. For example, OHTA is a principal components transformation that puts most of the information in the first channel. Here we have Alter channel pixels by evaluating an arithmetic, relational, or logical expression. See the -function operator for some multi-parameter functions. See the -fx operator if more elaborate calculations are needed.
The behaviors of each operator are summarized in the following list. For brevity, the numerical value of a "pixel" referred to below is the value of the corresponding channel of that pixel, while a "normalized pixel" is that number divided by the maximum installation-dependent value QuantumRange. If normalized pixels are used, they are restored, following the other calculations, to the full range by multiplying by QuantumRange.
The specified functions are applied only to each previously set -channel in the image. If necessary, the results of the calculations are truncated clipped to fit in the interval [0, QuantumRange ]. To print a complete list of -evaluate operators, use -list evaluate. AddModulus has been added as of ImageMagick 6.
It is therefore equivalent to Add unless the resulting pixel value is outside the interval [0, QuantumRange ]. Exp or Exponential has been added as of ImageMagick 6.
The value used with Exp should be negative so as to produce a decaying exponential function. Non-negative values will always produce results larger unity and thus outside the interval [0, QuantumRange ].
The formula is expressed below. If the input image is squared, for example, using -function polynomial "2 0 0" , then a decaying Gaussian function will be the result. Log has been added as of ImageMagick 6. This a scaled log function. The value used with Log provides a scaling factor that adjusts the curvature in the graph of the log function. The formula applied to a normalized value u is below.
Pow has been added as of ImageMagick 6. Note that Pow is related to the -gamma operator. For example, -gamma 2 is equivalent to -evaluate pow 0. The value used with -gamma is simply the reciprocal of the value used with Pow. Cosine and Sine was added as of IM v6. The synonyms Cos and Sin may also be used.
The value scaling of the period of the function its frequency , and thus determines the number of 'waves' that will be generated over the input color range. For example, if the value is 1, the effective period is simply the QuantumRange ; but if the value is 2, then the effective period is the half the QuantumRange. See also the -function operator, which is a multi-value version of evaluate. Alter channel pixels by evaluating an arithmetic, relational, or logical expression over a sequence of images.
Ensure all the images in the sequence are in the same colorspace, otherwise you may get unexpected results, e. add -colorspace sRGB to your command-line.
To print a complete list of -evaluate-sequence operators, use -list evaluate. No further options are processed after this option. Useful in a script to force the magick command to exit without actually closing the pipeline that it is processing options from. You can also use the option as a final option on the magick command line instead of an implicit output image, to completely prevent any image write.
Note, even the NULL: coder requires at least one image, for it to 'not write'! This option does not require any images at all. If the image is enlarged, unfilled areas are set to the background color. To position the image, use offsets in the geometry specification or precede with a -gravity setting.
To specify how to compose the image with the background, use -compose. The following command reduces or expands a JPEG image to fit on an x display.
If the aspect ratio of the input image isn't exactly , then the image is centered on an x black canvas:. The command can also be used with a ratio. If the image is not already at that ratio, it will be cropped to fit it. The -gravity setting has the expected effects. The following command crops a JPEG image so that it has a ratio:.
This option is most useful for extracting a subregion of a very large raw image. Note that these two commands are equivalent:. This setting suggests a font family that ImageMagick should try to use for rendering text. If the family can be found it is used; if not, a default font e.
Note, the family can be a CSS-style font list. For other settings that affect fonts, see the options -font , -pointsize , -stretch , -style , and -weight. Display co-occurrence matrix texture measure features for each channel in the image in each of four directions horizontal, vertical, left and right diagonals for the specified distance. This option is new as of ImageMagick 6. It transforms an image from the normal spatial domain to the frequency domain.
In the frequency domain, an image is represented as a superposition of complex sinusoidal waves of varying amplitudes. The image x and y coordinates are the possible frequencies along the x and y directions, respectively, and the pixel intensity values are complex numbers that correspond to the sinusoidal wave amplitudes. See for example, Fourier Transform , Discrete Fourier Transform and Fast Fourier Transform.
A single image name is provided as output for this option. However, the output result will have two components. It is either a two-frame image or two separate images, depending upon whether the image format specified supports multi-frame images.
The reason that we get a dual output result is because the frequency domain represents an image using complex numbers, which cannot be visualized directly. Therefore, the complex values are automagically separated into a two-component image representation. The first component is the magnitude of the complex number and the second is the phase of the complex number. See for example, Complex Numbers. The magnitude and phase component images must be specified using image formats that do not limit the color or compress the image.
Thus, MIFF, TIF, PFM, EXR and PNG are the recommended image formats to use. All of these formats, except PNG support multi-frame images. So for example,. The input image can be any size, but if not square and even-dimensioned, it is padded automagically to the larger of the width or height of the input image and to an even number of pixels.
The resulting output magnitude and phase images is square at this size. The kind of padding relies on the -virtual-pixel setting. Both output components will have dynamic ranges that fit within [0, QuantumRange ], so that HDRI need not be enabled. The first few releases had non-HDRI scaled but HDRI not scaled. The magnitude image is not scaled and thus generally will contain very small values. As such, the image normally will appear totally black.
In order to view any detail, the magnitude image typically is enhanced with a log function into what is usually called the spectrum. A log function is used to enhance the darker values more in comparison to the lighter values. This can be done, for example, as follows:. where either -contrast-stretch 0 or -auto-level is used to scale the image to full dynamic range, first.
The argument to the -evaluate log typically is specified between and 10,, depending upon the amount of detail that one wants to bring out in the spectrum. Larger values produce more visible detail. Too much detail, however, may hide the important features. The FFTW delegate library is required to use -fft. However, as the real and imaginary components can contain negative values, this requires that IM be configured with HDRI enabled. In this case, you must use either MIFF, TIF, PFM or MPC formats for the real and imaginary component results, since they are formats that preserve both negative and fractional values without clipping them or truncating the fractional part.
For more about HDRI go the ImageMagick Usage pages, Fred's Fourier Processing With ImageMagick page or this Wikipedia entry. By default the FFT is normalized and the IFT is not.
This option accepts a color name, a hex color, or a numerical RGB, RGBA, HSL, HSLA, CMYK, or CMYKA specification. See Color Names for a description of how to properly specify the color argument. Enclose the color specification in quotation marks to prevent the " " or the parentheses from being interpreted by your shell.
Use this type of filter when resizing or distorting an image. Use this option to affect the resizing operation of an image during operations such as -resize and -distort.
For example you can use a simple resize filter such as:. The Bessel and Sinc filter is also provided as well as a faster SincFast equivalent form. However these filters are generally useless on their own as they are infinite filters that are being clipped to the filters support size.
Their direct use is not recommended except via expert settings see below. Instead these special filter functions are typically windowed by a windowing function that the -filter setting defines. That is using these functions will define a 'Windowed' filter, appropriate to the operator involved.
Windowed filters include:. Also one special self-windowing filter is also provided Lagrange , which will automagically re-adjust its function depending on the current 'support' or 'lobes' expert settings see below. If you do not select a filter with this option, the filter defaults to Mitchell for a colormapped image, an image with a matte channel, or if the image is enlarged.
Otherwise the filter default to Lanczos. You can modify how the filter behaves as it scales your image through the use of these expert settings see also -define and -set To extract the data for a raw windowing function, combine it with a ' Box ' filter. For example the ' Welch parabolic windowing function. Note that the use of expert options is provided for image processing experts who have studied and understand how resize filters work.
Without this knowledge, and an understanding of the definition of the actual filters involved, using expert settings are more likely to be detrimental to your image resizing. This is a simple alias for the -layers method "flatten". Flood fill starts from the given 'seed point' which is not gravity affected. Any color that matches within -fuzz color distance of the given color argument, connected to that 'seed point' will be replaced with the current -fill color.
Note that if the pixel at the 'seed point' does not itself match the given color according to -fuzz , then no action will be taken. This operator works more like the -opaque option, than a more general flood fill that reads the matching color directly at the 'seed point'. For this form of flood fill, look at -draw and its 'color floodfill' drawing method. Set the font to use when annotating images with text, or creating labels.
To print a complete list of fonts, use the -list font option for versions prior to 6. In addition to the fonts specified by the above pre-defined list, you can also specify a font from a specific source.
For example Arial. ttf is a TrueType font file, ps:helvetica is PostScript font, and x:fixed is X11 font. For other settings that affect fonts, see the options -family , -stretch , -style , and -weight.
To specify an explicit font filename or collection, specify the font path preceded with a , e. You can specify the font face index for font collections, e. When used with the mogrify utility, this option converts any image to the image format you specify. For a list of image format types supported by ImageMagick, use -list format. By default the file is written to its original name.
However, if the filename extension matches a supported format, the extension is replaced with the image format type specified with -format. For example, if you specify tiff as the format type and the input image filename is image. gif , the output image filename becomes image. See Format and Print Image Properties for an explanation on how to specify the argument to this option. The color of the border is specified with the -mattecolor command line option.
The size portion of the geometry argument indicates the amount of extra width and height that is added to the dimensions of the image. If no offsets are given in the geometry argument, then the border added is a solid color. Offsets x and y , if present, specify that the width and height of the border is partitioned to form an outer bevel of thickness x pixels and an inner bevel of thickness y pixels.
Negative offsets make no sense as frame arguments. The -frame option is affected by the current -compose setting and assumes that this is using the default ' Over ' composition method. It generates an image of the appropriate size with the current -bordercolor setting, and then draws the frame of four distinct colors close to the current -mattecolor.
The original image is then overlaid onto center of this image. This operator performs calculations based on the given arguments to modify each of the color values for each previously set -channel in the image. See -evaluate for details concerning how the results of the calculations are handled. This is can be considered a multi-argument version of the -evaluate operator. Added in ImageMagick 6.
Here, parameters is a comma-separated list of numerical values. The number of values varies depending on which function is selected. Choose the function from:. To print a complete list of -function operators, use -list function. Descriptions follow. The Polynomial function takes an arbitrary number of parameters, these being the coefficients of a polynomial, in decreasing order of degree. That is, entering. The Polynomial function can be used in place of Set the constant polynomial and Add , Divide , Multiply , and Subtract some linear polynomials of the -evaluate operator.
The -level operator also affects channels linearly. Some correspondences follow. The Polynomial function gives great versatility, since polynomials can be used to fit any continuous curve to any degree of accuracy desired.
The Sinusoid function can be used to vary the channel values sinusoidally by setting frequency, phase shift, amplitude, and a bias. These values are given as one to four parameters, as follows,. where phase is in degrees.
The domain [0,1] of the function corresponds to 0 through freq × degrees. The result is that if a pixel's normalized channel value is originally u , its resulting normalized value is given by. For example, the following generates a curve that starts and ends at 0. The default values of amp and bias are both. The default for phase is 0. The Sinusoid function generalizes Sin and Cos of the -evaluate operator by allowing varying amplitude, phase and bias.
The correspondence is as follows. The ArcSin function generates the inverse curve of a Sinusoid, and can be used to generate cylindrical distortion and displacement maps.
The curve can be adjusted relative to both the input values and output range of values. with all values given in terms of normalized color values 0.
Defaulting to values covering the full range from 0. The ArcTan function generates a curve that smooth crosses from limit values at infinities, though a center using the given slope value. All these values can be adjusted via the arguments.
A number of algorithms search for a target color. By default the color must be exact. Use this option to match colors that are close to the target color in RGB space. For example, if you want to automagically trim the edges of an image with -trim but the image was scanned and the target background color may differ by a small amount. This option can account for these differences. If the first character of expression is , the expression is read from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string.
See FX, The Special Effects Image Operator for a detailed discussion of this option. The same color image displayed on two different workstations may look different due to differences in the display monitor. Use gamma correction to adjust for this color difference. Reasonable values extend from 0.
Gamma less than 1. Large adjustments to image gamma may result in the loss of some image information if the pixel quantum size is only eight bits quantum range 0 to This option is useful if the image is of a known gamma but not set as an image attribute e.
PNG images. Write the "file gamma" which is the reciprocal of the display gamma; e. The radius is only used to determine the size of the array which will hold the calculated Gaussian distribution. The larger the Radius the radius the slower the operation is. This differs from the faster -blur operator in that a full 2-dimensional convolution is used to generate the weighted average of the neighboring pixels. Sets the current gravity suggestion for various other settings and options.
Choices include: NorthWest , North , NorthEast , West , Center , East , SouthWest , South , SouthEast. Use -list gravity to get a complete list of -gravity settings available in your ImageMagick installation.
The direction you choose specifies where to position text or subimages. For example, a gravity of Center forces the text to be centered within the image. By default, the image gravity is undefined. See -draw for more details about graphic primitives.
Only the text primitive of -draw is affected by the -gravity option. The -gravity option is also used in concert with the -geometry setting and other settings or options that take geometry as an argument, such as the -crop option.
If a -gravity setting occurs before another option or setting having a geometry argument that specifies an offset, the offset is usually applied to the point within the image suggested by the -gravity argument. Thus, in the following command, for example, suppose the file image. png has dimensions x The argument to -gravity is Center , which suggests the midpoint of the image, at the point , In addition, the -gravity affects the region itself, which is centered at the pixel coordinate 60, When used as an option to composite , -gravity gives the direction that the image gravitates within the composite.
When used as an option to montage , -gravity gives the direction that an image gravitates within a tile. The default gravity is Center for this purpose. This will use one of the -intensity methods to convert the given image into a grayscale image. Note that a 'colorspace' intensity method will produce the same result regardless of the current colorpsace of the image. But a 'mathematical' intensity method depends on the current colorspace the image is currently using.
While this operation uses an -intensity method, it does not use or set the -intensity setting, so will not affect other operations that may use that setting. A Hald color lookup table is a 3-dimensional color cube mapped to 2 dimensions. Create it with the HALD: prefix e. You can apply any color transformation to the Hald image and then use this option to apply the transform to the image. This option provides a convenient method for you to use Gimp or Photoshop to make color corrections to the Hald CLUT image and subsequently apply them to multiple images using an ImageMagick script.
Note that the representation is only of the normal RGB color space and that the whole color value triplet is used for the interpolated lookup of the represented Hald color cube image. See also -clut which provides color value replacement of the individual color channels, usually involving a simpler grayscale image. g: grayscale to color replacement, or modification by a histogram mapping.
Use the Hough line detector with any binary edge extracted image to locate and draw any straight lines that it finds. The process accumulates counts for every white pixel in the binary edge image for every possible orientation for angles from 0 to in 1 deg increments and distance from the center of the image to the corners in 1 px increments.
It stores the counts in an accumulator matrix of angle vs distance. Next it searches the accumulator for peaks in counts and converts the locations of the peaks to slope and intercept in the normal x,y input image space. The lines are drawn from the given endpoints. The counts are a measure of the length of the lines. The WxH arguments specify the filter size for locating the peaks in the Hough accumulator. The threshold excludes lines whose counts are less than the threshold value. Use -background to specify the color of the background onto which the lines will be drawn.
The default is black. Use -fill to specify the color of the lines. Use -stroke and -strokewidth to specify the thickness of the lines. The default is black and no strokewidth. A text file listing the endpoints and counts may be created by using the suffix,. mvg, for the output image. Offsets, if present in the geometry specification, are handled in the same manner as the -geometry option, using X11 style to handle negative offsets. This information is printed: image scene number; image name; image size; the image class DirectClass or PseudoClass ; the total number of unique colors; and the number of seconds to read and transform the image.
Refer to MIFF for a description of the image class. If -colors is also specified, the total unique colors in the image and color reduction error values are printed. Refer to color reduction algorithm for a description of these values. If -verbose precedes this option, copious amounts of image properties are displayed including image statistics, profiles, image histogram, and others. It transforms a pair of magnitude and phase images from the frequency domain to a single image in the normal or spatial domain.
For example, depending upon the image format used to store the result of the -fft , one would use either. The FFTW delegate library is required to use -ift. By default the IFT is not normalized and the FFT is. reference illuminant. This option takes last image in the current image sequence and inserts it at the given index.
If a negative index is used, the insert position is calculated before the last image is removed from the sequence. As such -insert -1 will result in no change to the image sequence. In other words, insert the last image, at the end of the current image sequence. Consequently this has no effect on the image sequence order. ImageMagick provides a number of methods used in situations where an operator needs to determine a single grayscale value for some purpose, from an image with red, green, and blue pixel components.
Typically the RecLuma formula is used, which is the same formula used when converting images to -colorspace gray. The following formulas are currently provided, and will first convert the pixel values to linear-RGB or non-linear sRGB colorspace before being applied to calculate the final greyscale value.
Note that the above R,G,B values is the image's linear-RGB values, while R',G',B' are sRGB non-linear values. These intensity methods are mathematical in nature and will use the current value in the images respective R,G,B channel regardless of what that is, or what colorspace the image is currently using.
These methods are often used for other purposes, such as generating a grayscale difference image between two color images using -compose ' Difference ' composition. For example The 'MS' Mean Squared setting is good for minimizing color error comparisions. The method 'RMS' Root Mean Squared for example is appropriate for calculating color vector distance, from a color difference image. This is equivalent to the color only component of the -fuzz factor color compare setting.
See also -grayscale which applies one of the above grayscaling formula directly to an image without setting the -intensity setting.
The -colorspace gray image conversion also uses the current intensity setting, but will always convert the image to the appropriate sRGB or linear-RGB colorspace before appling the above function. To print a complete list of possible pixel intensity setting methods, use -list intensity. Use this option to affect the color management operation of an image see -profile. Choose from these intents: Absolute, Perceptual, Relative, Saturation. The default intent is Perceptual for the sRGB colorspace and undefined for the RGB and gray colorspaces.
This option is used to specify the type of interlacing scheme for raw image formats such as RGB or YUV. Partition is like plane except the different planes are saved to individual files e. R, image. G, and image. Use Line or Plane to create an interlaced PNG or GIF or progressive JPEG image. Set the pixel color interpolation method to use when looking up a color based on a floating point or real value. When looking up the color of a pixel using a non-integer floating point value, you typically fall in between the pixel colors defined by the source image.
This setting determines how the color is determined from the colors of the pixels surrounding that point. That is how to determine the color of a point that falls between two, or even four different colored pixels. This most important for distortion operators such as -distort , -implode , -transform and -fx. See also -virtual-pixel , for control of the lookup for positions outside the boundaries of the image.
Resize with interpolation. See the -interpolate setting. Kmeans iterative color reduction e. Colors is the desired number of colors. Initial colors are found using color quantization.
Processing finishes, if either iterations or tolerance are reached. A color list overrides the color quantization. A non-empty list of colors overrides the number of colors. Any unassigned initial colors are assigned random colors from the image.
The radius is more important than the sigma. The sigma provides a bit of additional smoothing control. Use this option to assign a specific label to the image, as it is read in or created. You can use the -set operation to re-assign a the labels of images already read in. Image formats such as TIFF, PNG, MIFF, supports saving the label information with the image.
When saving an image to a PostScript file, any label assigned to an image is used as a header string to print above the postscript image. You can include the image filename, type, width, height, or other image attribute by embedding special format character.
See Format and Print Image Properties for details of the percent escape codes. assigns an image label of MIFF:bird. miff x to the " bird. miff " image and whose width is and height is , as it is read in. You can remove all labels from an image by assigning the empty string.
A label is not drawn on the image, but is embedded in the image datastream via Label tag or similar mechanism. If you want the label to be visible on the image itself, use the -draw option, or during the final processing in the creation of an image montage. If the first character of string is , the image label is read from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string.
Labels in a file are literal, no embedded formatting characters are recognized. Adaptively threshold each pixel based on the value of pixels in a surrounding window. If the current pixel is lighter than this average plus the optional offset , then it is made white, otherwise it is made black. Small variations in pixel values such as found in scanned documents can be ignored if offset is positive.
A negative offset will make it more sensitive to those small variations. This is commonly used to threshold images with an uneven background. It is based on the assumption that average color of the small window is the the local background color, from which to separate the foreground color. Handle multiple images forming a set of image layers or animation frames. Perform various image operation methods to a ordered sequence of images which may represent either a set of overlaid 'image layers', a GIF disposal animation, or a fully-'coalesced' animation sequence.
The operators -coalesce , -deconstruct , -flatten , and -mosaic are only aliases for the above methods and may be deprecated in the future. Also see -page , -repage operators, the -compose setting, and the GIF -dispose and -delay settings.
Given one, two or three values delimited with commas: black-point, white-point, gamma for example: 10,,1. Gamma will do a -gamma adjustment of the values. If it is omitted, the default of 1.
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Selecting a language below will dynamically change the complete page content to that language. You have not selected any file s to download. A download manager is recommended for downloading multiple files. Would you like to install the Microsoft Download Manager? Generally, a download manager enables downloading of large files or multiples files in one session. Many web browsers, such as Internet Explorer 9, include a download manager. Stand-alone download managers also are available, including the Microsoft Download Manager.
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This provides you with direct contrast adjustments to the image. G, and image. Follow the text coordinates with a string. See when to order. The opacity of the composite image is multiplied by the given percent, then it is composited 'over' the main image.To specify the amount to be removed, use -shave instead. Incredibly simple. The formula is expressed below. Give the center point, the horizontal and vertical "radii" the semi-axes of the ellipse and start and end angles in degrees e. That is the direction people would consider the object is coming from.